Read: Mary Austin Holley, TEXAS (1836)

TEXAS, by Mary Austin Holley. (Originally published  July 1836.) Texas State Historical Association, 1985.

A sort of combination of a short geography, history and promotional brochure and legal guide for Anglo settlement in Texas, written during the Texas Revolution and including a closing chapter with a Texian history of the events of the war.

For attitudes towards Tejanos and Mexicans, see Chapter VII, Inhabitants–Society and Manners, and numerous references to Mexicans, “Anglo-Saxons”/Anglo-Americans, race and war sentiments in Stephen F. Austin’s “Address…” from March 7, 1836, reprinted on p. 253 et seq. For attitudes towards Indians, see especially Chapter VIII, Indians. For legal regulations on Indians and trade under Mexican governance, see Art. 19 of the Colonization Law of the State of Coahuila and Texas, reprinted p. 209.

California Stuff

Statutes and Amendments to the Code, 1850:

California Statutes, 1850. Chap. 97, p. 221 et seq. AN ACT for the better regulation of the Mines, and the government of Foreign Miners (April 13, 1850) [1850 index]

Roaring Camp: The Social World of the California Gold Rush

It’s Your Misfortune and None of My Own: A New History of the American West. pp. 238, 334 – effect of Foreign Miners’ Tax on Mexican and Latinx miners vs. white immigrant miners, etc.

Racial Fault Lines: The Historical Origins of White Supremacy in California.

p. 108: “I give attention to unraveling the racializing ideology used by European Americans to both racially demonize the Indians and justify their decimation



Sistema de Castas and the Casta Paintings

Las Castas – Spanish Racial Classifications

Wikipedia:Casta: “A casta (Spanish: [ˈkasta], Portuguese: [ˈkastɐ, ˈkaʃtɐ]) was a hierarchical system of race classification created by Spanish elites (españoles) in Hispanic America during the eighteenth century. The sistema de castas or the sociedad de castas was used in 17th and 18th centuries in Spanish America and Spanish Philippines to describe as a whole and socially rank the mixed-race people who were born during the post-Conquest period. The process of mixing ancestries in the union of people of different races was known as mestizaje. A parallel system of categorization based on the degree of acculturation to Hispanic culture, which distinguished between gente de razón (Hispanics, literally, “people of reason”) and gente sin razón (non-acculturated natives), concurrently existed and supported the idea of the racial classification system.”



De negra é india sale lobo.



De mestizo é india sale Coiote



Partial Index To Race Laws and Race Language in Republic of Texas Laws

Ninth Congress laws [1845]:

Witness in Court: “Sec. 26. All negroes, mulattoes, Indians, and all other persons of mixed blood, descended from negro or Indian ancestors, to the third generation inclusive, though one ancestor of each generation may have been a white person, shall be incapable in law to be witnesses in any case whatsoever, except for and against each other.” [Dec. 22, 1836]

Slave Trade as Piracy: “Sec. 1. … That if any person or persons shall introduce any African negro or negroes, contrary to the true intent and meaning of the ninth section of the general provisions of the constitution, declaring the introduction of African negroes into this republic, to be piracy, except such as are from the United States of America, and had been held as slaves therein, be considered guilty of piracy; and upon conviction thereof, before any court having cognizance of the same, shall suffer death, without the benefit of clergy.

Sec. 2. … That if any person or persons shall introduce into the republic of Texas, any Africans or any slave or slaves, from the United States of America, except such slave or slaves as were previously introduced and held in slavery in that republic, in conformity with the laws of that government, shall be deemed guilty of piracy, and upon conviction therefore, before any court having cognizance of the same, shall suffer death.” [Dec. 21, 1836.]

Militia, Republic of Texas: “every able-bodied male citizen of this republic, resident therein, who is or shall be of the age of seventeen years, and under the age of fifty years, (except as hereinafter excepted,) shall severally and respectively be enrolled in the militia, by the captain or commanding officer of the company, within whose bounds such citizens shall reside….


Republic of Texas Session Laws [does not include Ninth Congress]:

Texas History Collection:

postal service, “no other than a free white European, Anglo-American or Mexican”:

Convention Resolution: “all free white males and Mexicans opposed to a Central Government”:

marriage, “any person of European blood or their descendants,” “Africans, or the descendants of Africans”:

militia, “every free white able-bodied male inhabitant, over sixteen and under fifty years of age”:

“Mexican trader”:

“free white male inhabitant, who shall have attained the age of twenty-one years” [Galveston]:

“one dollar for every free white passenger”:

headright lands:

Crimes and misdeameanors committed by slaves and free persons of color / “free white female,” “free white person,” etc.:

Treaty between “the white and red men of Texas” (“Comanche, Keechie, Waco, Caddo, Ana-da-kah, Ionie, Delaware, Shawnee, Cherokee, Lipan [Apache], and Tah-wah-karro tribes of Indians”:

“Poll Tax … on every white male of this Republic, between twenty-one and fifty years of age”:

“to prevent the assembling of colored persons”:


Declining Social Acceptance of Anglo-Mexican intermarriage in 1850s Texas

From Martha Menchaca, “The Anti-Miscegenation History of the American Southwest, 1837 to 1970: Transforming Racial Ideology into Law,” Cultural Dynamics 20, no. 3 (2008), 287.

As the Mexicans’ social status declined so did intermarriage. Mexican women were no longer sought after as marriage partners by Anglo American men, a practice that had been common in San Antonio and Laredo, two cities with a majority Mexican population. In 1855, Texan land investor John Donelson Coffee noted in a letter to his cousin that Mexicans were no longer accepted in Anglo American social circles (Boom, 1966: 283). According to Donelson, in San Antonio Anglo Americans socialized with four or five Mexican families and only considered the single women of these families acceptable marriage partners. These women were described as light complexioned, unlike the rest of the Mexican women who Donelson derogatorily called “greaser” and characterized them to be dark like mulattas (Boom, 1966: 283). Corroborating Donelson’s observations are the marriage records from San Antonio. By the late 1840s, only a handful of Mexican women married Anglo American men and, in 1850, out of 60 Anglo American marriages only 4 involved Mexican brides, a pattern that continued into the 1860s (Bean and Bradshaw, 1970: 394; Dysart, 1976: 369).