One way to break down the bipolar model is to note how Anglos and Tejanos, especially elite Tejanos, often collaborated together in the other racial projects of Texas. They quarreled over questions of loyalty to the alliance, but there was an alliance nevertheless. Mexicans brought Angloamericans into Texas largely in order to expel or blockade Indians in order to control the North and insulate the interior from the expanding Comanche empire. The cost of their arrival was Tejano support for a more rigidly racialized and expansive form of plantation slavery. Some elite Tejanos independently aspired to join Mexican Texas to the great Deep South cotton boom. The dynamic system they forged raised anxieties about defection, especially from racially ambiguous lower-class Mexicans. But the development of another, clearly Anglo dominant racial polarity to capture Texas Mexicans is a later product, beginning in the racial troubles of the 1850s-60s, and developing for real in the segregation era of the 1870s-90s as institutions created for other racial projects — Texas Rangers and violent reprisal for alleged rustling/depredations, Jim Crow racial codes, etc. — came to be turned against Texas Mexicans as well as African Americans and Indians.

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